Spectro-analytical Research of Selected Heavy Metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in Four Different Single-use Plastics Commonly in Contact with Food from Sokoto, Nigeria

  • Umar A.I. Department of Biochemistry, Sokoto State University, Sokoto, Nigeria
  • Yusuf Sarkingobir Shehu Shagari University of Education Sokoto
  • Dikko M. Sultan Abdulrahman College of Health Technology Gwadabawa, Sokoto State Nigeria
Keywords: Heavy metals, single-use plastics, straw, lead, cadmium, cupper, food

Abstract

Single use plastics are types of plastics discarded after one usage. They are everywhere you go because of their wide range of applications in life. In plastics, additives are incorporated to supplant properties of plastics. One of the common additives is the heavy metals, which could leach out along the plastics lifecycle, thereby creating a problem. This study was stimulated to determine the levels of heavy metals in selected single-use-plastics commonly in contact with food (as containers or wrappings or relations) in Sokoto. The Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy methodology was utilized to determine the levels of copper, chromium, lead, zinc and cadmium. The results for determination of selected heavy metals in selected single use plastics from Sokoto State University, Nigeria were revealed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Therein, the concentrations of copper (Cu) ranges from 0.335+0.002 to 0.540+0.002(ug/kg), levels of cadmium (Cd) ranges from 0.0551+0.003 to 0.0041+0.0003(ug/kg), levels of chromium (Cr) ranges from 0.0959 +0.004 to 0.0265+0.001(ug/kg), levels of lead (Pb) ranges from -1.791+0.02 to -0.0706+0.008(ug/kg).  Thus, the results revealed disparity in the levels of the analyzed heavy metals in the selected single use plastics.  However, Cu concentration was the most elevated in plastic bottle (PB) and lowest in Takeaway (T); Cd was highest in Straw (S), and lowest in PB; Cr was highest in Ice cream cup (IC) and lowest in S; Pb was highest in PB, and lowest in S. The concentrations of Cupper, Chromium, Lead, and Cadmium in plastic bottle, Takeaway, Straw and lce cream cup, have shown disparity. However, Cu concentration was the most elevated in plastic bottle (PB) and lowest in Takeaway; Cd was highest in Straw, and lowest in PB; Cr was highest in Ice cream cup and lowest in S; Pb was highest in PB, and lowest in S. They levels determined are within the permissible limits.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

O.A. Alabi, K.I. Ologbunjaye, O., Awosolu, O.E.. Alalade, ‘‘Public and Environmental health effects of plastic wastes disposal: A review,’’ J. Toxicol. Risk Assess. vol.5, no.2,pp.1-13, mon. 2019,doi.

Y. Sarkingobir, M. Dikko, S. Aliyu, U. Tambari, A. Adamu, I.A. Salau and M.A. ‘‘The dangers of plastics to public health: A review’’. NIPES J. Sci. Technol. Res.,vol.2, no.2, pp.195-200, 2020.

R.U. Halden, ‘‘Plastics and health risks. Ann. Rev. Pub. Health, 31: 179-194, 2010.

C.M., Rochman, M.A., Browne, B.S., Halpern, B.T., Hentschel, E., Hoh, et al. ‘‘Policy: Classify plastic waste as hazardous,’’ Nature, vol. 494, pp.169-171, 2013.

European Union ‘‘Commission Regulation no 1935 and articles intended to come into contact with food, ’’ 2011.

J. Kaiser, ‘‘The dirt on ocean garbage patches,’’ Sci.vol. 328, pp. 1506, 2010.

R, Geyer, J.R. Jambeck, and K.L. Law, ‘‘Production, use, and fate of all plastics ever made,’’ Sci. Advancem., vol.3, no.e1700782,2017.

Y. Sarkingobir, A.M. Bello, and H.M. Yabo. ‘‘Harmful effects of plastics on air quality,’’ Acad. Lett., no.2967. https://doi.org/10.20935/AL296, 2021.

S. Muhammad, I., Ashiri, D.K. Ibrahim, D. Salawu, I.N. Muhammad and A. Muhammad ‘‘Determination of some heavy metals in wastewater sediment of artisanal gold in local mining site of Abare Area Nigeria,’’ J. Environ. Treat. Techniq.,vol.1, no.3, pp.174-182,2014.

M.S. Ibrahim, A.J. Jafar, S.A.S. Abubakar, U. Saleh, L.Mahmud and A. Ibrahim. ‘‘Bioplastics as better alternative to petroplastics and their role in national sustainability: A review’’. Advan. Biosci. Bioeng., vol.6, no.4, pp.63-70, 2017.

R.C. Thompson, C.J. Moore, F.S. vom Saal, and S.H. Swan. ‘‘Plastics, the environment and human health: Current consensus and future trends, philosophical transactions of the Royal Society,’’ Biol. Sci.,vol.364, no.1526, pp.2153-2166, 2009.

R. Li, X. Lee, Z. Zhan, and R. Clifford, ‘‘Evaluation of heavy metal migration from different types of plastic food packaging materials into aqueous simulants using ICP-MS,’’ Math. Probl. Eng., vol.2, no.3, pp.1-5, 2014.

A.A. Adepoju-Bello, O.O. Oguntibeju, R.A. Adebisi, N.Okpala, and H.A.B. Coker, ‘‘Evaluation of the concentration of toxic metals in cosmetics products in Nigeria,’’ Afri. J. Biotechnol., vol.11, no.97, pp.16360-16364, 2012.

M. Bala, R.A. Shehu, and M. Lawal, ‘‘Determination of the level of some heavy metals in water collected from two pollution-prone irrigation areas around Kano Metropolis,’’ Bayero J. Pure Appl. Sci.,vol.1, no.1, pp.36-38, 2008.

S., Khan, Q. Cao, Y.M. Zheng, Y.Z. Huang, and Y.G. Zhu, ‘‘Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China,’’ Environ. Pollu., vol.152,pp.686-692, 2008.

A. Turner. ‘‘Heavy metals, metalloids and other hazardous elements in marine plastic litter,’’ Mar. Pollu. Bull.,vol.111, no.1-2, pp.136-142,2016.

S.D. Guala, F. A. Vega and E.F. Covelo, ‘‘The dynamics of heavy metals in plant–soil interactions, ’’ Ecol. Modell., vol.221,pp. 1148–1152, 2010.

S. Khan, and A. Khan, ‘‘Toxic heavy metal concentration in locally made plastic food container,’’ Int. J. Scien. Eng. Res.,vol.6,no.6, pp.45-47, 2015.

J.A. Omolaoye, A. Uzairu, and C.E. Gonna. ‘‘Heavy metal assessment of some sort plastic toys imported into Nigeria from China,’’ J. Environ. Chem. Ecotoxicol. ,vol.2, no.8, pp.26-130, 2010.

K. Olubanjo, O.M. Osibanjo, and I.C Nmorom, ‘‘Evaluation of Pb and Cu contacts of selected component parts of waste personal computers’’. J. Appli. Sci. and Environ. Manage., vol.19, no.3,pp. 470-477, 2015.

WHO. ‘‘Adverse health effects of f heavy metals in children, ’’ 2011 www.who.int.ce

Plastics Europe ‘‘Plastics-The Facts. An analysis of European plastics production, Demand and waste data, ’’ Brussels, Belg: Plast Eur http://www.wikipedia.com/, 2016.

O. Alam, L. Yang, and X. Yanchun , ‘‘Determination of the selected heavy metal and metalloid contents in various types of plastic toys,’’ J. Environ. Health Sci. Eng. vol.17,pp. 161-170, 2019.

Aliyu A. Ochigbo, S.S. and Akoyi J.N. ‘‘Comparative assessment of the levels of some heavy metals in virgin and used water plastic bottles and sachets in Nigeria. Afri. J. Chemi. Educ.,vol.7, no.2,pp.93-104, 2017.

Okenwa-Ani, J.A. and Gimba, C.E., ‘‘Heavy metal levels in plastics housing of televisions: Is there a changing trend across the three decades (1980-2000), ’’ Iranian J. Toxicol., vol.13,no. 3, pp.27-32, 2019.

Seyaboh, E.I. Angaye T.C.N. Seiyaboh, and Z. ‘‘Asessment of heavy metal contaminants associated with locally processed beverages in reused plastic container’’. Direct Research J. Biol. Biotechol., vol.6,no.4, pp.34-36,2020.

A.I. Umar, Y. Sarkingobir, Z. Shehu, and M. Dikko ‘‘Determination of micronutrients (zinc, iodine, selenium) in three different eggvarieties from Sokoto, Nigeria’’ Adamawa State Uni. J. Scien. Res., vol.10, no.1,pp.1-6, 2022.

Olagunju, T.E. Olagunju, A.O. Akawu, I.H. Ugokwe, C.U. ‘‘Quantification and risk assessment of heavy metals in groundwater and soil of residential areas around Awotan landfill, Ibadan, Southwest- Nigeria’’ J. Toxicol. Risk Asess.,vol.6, no.1,pp.1-12,2020.

Jallo, I.U. Kodiya M.A. Molu M.A. ‘‘Waste management practices and its environmental implications in Hadejia Metropolis, Jigawa state, Nigeria,’’ Dutse J. Pure Appli. Sci.vol.7,no.2b,pp.228-236.

Aliyu, S. ‘‘Stakeholders views on ways to reduce use of plastic bags and its environmental and public health impacts in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto state, Nigeria’’ Int. J. Res. Scient. Innov.vol.vii,no.iv,pp.196-200,2020.

Sarkingobir, Y. Sahabi, M. Bello, S.Y. ‘‘Effects of plastic pollution: An overview,’’ Subsaha. Afri. Acad. Res. Publi.: J. Agri. Agricul. Tech., vol.22,no.1,pp.163-177,2021.

C. Campanale, C. Massarelli, I. Savino, V. Locaputo, and V. F. Uricchio, ‘‘A detailed review study on potential effects of microplastics and concern on human health,’’ Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health,vol.17, no.1212,pp.1-26, 2020.

Published
2022-06-07
How to Cite
[1]
U. A.I., Y. Sarkingobir, and D. M., “Spectro-analytical Research of Selected Heavy Metals (Cu, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in Four Different Single-use Plastics Commonly in Contact with Food from Sokoto, Nigeria”, Jurnal Teknokes, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 76-80, Jun. 2022.
Section
Environtmental Health and Engineering