The Effectiveness Of Moringa Leaf Extract (Moringa oleifera) on Cadmium and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Blood as Indicators of Atherosclerosis in Cadmium (Cd) Induced White Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

  • Vernanda Arsya Nabilla Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya
  • Indah Lestari Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya
  • Christ Kartika Rahayuningsih Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya
  • Juliana Christyaningsih Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya
Keywords: Atomic Absorption Spechtrophotometry (AAS), Cadmium, Chemical Analyzer, LDL Cholesterol, Moringa oleifera, White Rats

Abstract

Moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera) have chelating agent properties that act as natural antioxidants in binding heavy metals and free radical scavengers, with cadmium being one of the heavy metals free radicals having toxic effects on the body. Exposure to cadmium can reduce the activity of lipoprotein lipase enzymes (LPL) which function in the triglycerides and free fatty acids catabolism process, and can increase cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) on Cadmium chloride-induced white rats (Rattus norvegicus) using an experimental research design with a quantitative analysis technique. This study uses the level of cadmium and LDL cholesterol for the dependent variable and the dose of Moringa leaf extract (Moringa oleifera) for its independent variable. The samples used are white rats (Rattus norvegicus) aged 8-12 weeks with a weight of 150-200 grams, along with blood drawn from the heart for the specimenThe researcher conducted the study at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Airlangga University; Surabaya Health Laboratory Center; and Surabaya Bakti Analysis Laboratory from October 2021 to June 2022 using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and Chemical Analyzer BS-200. The results show that the average value of cadmium and LDL cholesterol levels in white rats in treatment group 1 are 0.605 g/dL and 8.25 mg/dL, group 2 are 0.075 g/dL & 18.5 mg/dL; and group 3 are 0.08125 g/dL and 12 mg/dL. Based on the statistical analysis of the One-Way ANOVA test, the sig. p-value is > 0.05. Thus, the average value of cadmium and LDL cholesterol has no significant difference. Compared to the 400 mg/kgBW and 500 mg/kgBW, the 600 mg/kgBW dose has the best effectiveness in reducing LDL cholesterol in white rats (Rattus norvegicus) after being induced with cadmium chloride. This study recommends consuming fresh Moringa leaves (Moringa oleifera) as much as 66.522 grams per human/day as an additional antioxidant and chelating agent.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Kominfo, “Apa itu Industri 4.0 dan bagaimana Indonesia menyongsongnya,” 2021. https://kominfo.go.id/content/detail/16505/apa-itu-industri-40-dan-bagaimana-indonesia-menyongsongnya/0/sorotan_media.

Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia, “Mengenal lebih dekat Kadmium,” Jakarta, 2015.

D. Qoriah, O. Setiani, and N. Dewanti, “Hubungan Antara Masa Kerja Dengan Kadar Timbal (Pb) Dalam Darah Pada Pekerja Industri Pengecoran Logam CV. Bonjor Jaya di Desa Batur, Ceper, Klaten,” J. Kesehat. Masy., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 688–701, 2015.

C. ZR et al., “Effects of occupational cadmium exposure on workers’ cardiovascular system,” Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zh, vol. 20, no. 36, pp. 474–477, 2018, doi: 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-9391.2018.06.025.

G. Genchi, S. S, L. Graziantono, A. Carocci, and A. Catalano, “The Effects of Cadmium Toxicity,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 17, no. Cd, pp. 1–24, 2020.

N. Nafiisah, A. S. D. Laksana, and J. Mulyanto, “Correlations of Cadmium Exposure With the Ureum and Creatinine Serum Levels in Baturaden Ornamental Plant Farmers,” Biomedika, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 79–84, 2020, doi: 10.23917/biomedika.v12i2.10416.

A. Anindya, R. Muhyi, and E. Suhartono, “Risiko Penyakit Jantung Koroner Akibat Pajanan Kadmium Melalui Pengukuran Kadar Kolesterol Dan Circulating Endothelial Cells Darah Tikus Putih,” Berk. Kedokt., vol. 12, no. 2, p. 153, 2016, doi: 10.20527/jbk.v12i2.1863.

E. Darwin, E. E. Fithra, and D. Elvira, Endotel - Fungsi dan Disfungsi, II. Padang: Andalas University Press, 2018.

Y. Borné et al., “Cadmium, carotid atherosclerosis, and incidence of ischemic stroke,” J. Am. Heart Assoc., vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1–6, 2017, doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.006415.

S. Samarghandian, M. Azimi-Nezhad, M. M. Shabestari, F. J. Azad, T. Farkhondeh, and F. Bafandeh, “Effect of chronic exposure to cadmium on serum lipid, lipoprotein and oxidative stress indices in male rats,” Interdiscip. Toxicol., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 151–154, 2015, doi: 10.1515/intox-2015-0023.

M. Sylvia, A. Vianne, Y. H. D, and H. L. D, “Analisis Risiko Kesehatan Lingkungan Kandungan Kadmium (Cd) Dalam Ikan Bandeng Di Kawasan Tambak Lorok Semarang,” J. Kesehat. Masy., vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 724–732, 2017.

E. Amiya, “Interaction of hyperlipidemia and reactive oxygen species: Insights from the lipid-raft platform,” World J. Cardiol., vol. 8, no. 12, p. 689, 2016, doi: 10.4330/wjc.v8.i12.689.

Dewi, “Efek Paparan Logam Berat Terhadap Kadar Malondialdehida dan Aktivitas Katalase Ikan Mas dan Ikan Nila di Sungai Kaligarang,” J. Mipa, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 69–75, 2018.

Z. Liu et al., “Role of ROS and nutritional antioxidants in human diseases,” Front. Physiol., vol. 9, no. MAY, pp. 1–14, 2018, doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.00477.

A. Werdhasari, “Peran Antioksidan Bagi Kesehatan,” J. Biomedik Medisiana Indones., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 59–68, 2014.

B. T. Tamon, M. Tiho, and S. H. M. Kaligis, “Efek Antioksidan pada Teh Hijau terhadap Kadar Kolesterol Darah,” J. e-Biomedik, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 151–159, 2021, doi: 10.35790/ebm.v9i2.31869.

N. Jusnita and W. Syurya, “Karakterisasi Nanoemulsi Ekstrak Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lamk.),” J. Sains Farm. Klin., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 16–24, 2019, [Online]. Available: file:///C:/Users/HP/Downloads/369-1167-5-PB.pdf.

Y. Mustapa, V. Hadju, R. Indriasari, H. Hidayanti, S. Sirajuddin, and S. S. Russeng, “The effect of moringa oleifera to hemoglobin levels of preconception women in the health center tibawa district tibawa, gorontalo,” Open Access Maced. J. Med. Sci., vol. 8, no. T2, pp. 104–108, 2020, doi: 10.3889/oamjms.2020.5201.

Mukhtarini, “Ekstraksi, Pemisahan Senyawa, dan Identifikasi Senyawa Aktif,” J. Pharm., vol. VII, no. 2, p. 361, 2011.

D. N. K. Wardani, “Pengaruh Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelor (Moringa Oleifera Lam.) Terhadap Jumlah Sel Mast Pada Mencit(Mus Musculus) Model Endometriosis,” J. Biosains Pascasarj., vol. 19, no. 3, p. 260, 2017, doi: 10.20473/jbp.v19i3.2017.260-267.

C. Pacier and D. M. Martirosyan, “Vitamin C: Optimal dosages, supplementation and use in disease prevention,” Funct. Foods Heal. Dis., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 89–107, 2015, doi: 10.31989/ffhd.v5i3.174.

K. F. Hazani, “Pengaruh pemberian ekstrak etanol daun kelor (Moringa oleifera L) terhadap kadar Malondialdehide (MDA) dan kualitas spermatozoa epididimis mencit (Mus musculus L) yang dipapar timbal (Pb) asetat,” Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang, 2014.

Y. Nurmalasari, R. Refie, E. Warganegara, and L. D. Wahyuni, “Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Daun Kelor (Moringa Oleifera) Terhadap Kadar Hemoglobin Pada Tikus Putig (Rattus norvegicus) Galur Wistar Jantan,” vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 187–193, 2021.

E. Karami and A. Ghanbari, “In Vivo Antioxidant And Kidney Protective Potential Of Atorvastatin In Rat Cadmium-Induced Toxicity,” 2021.

H. Stevani, Praktikum Farmakologi, Perama. Jakarta Selatan: Pusdik SDM Kesehatan, 2016.

Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia, Peraturan menteri kesehatan republik indonesia nomor 492/menkes/per/IV/2010 tentang persyaratan kualitas air minum. Jakarta: Depkes RI, 2010.

B. Rosita and F. Andriyati, “Perbandingan Kadar Logam Kadmium (CD) Dalam Darah Perokok Aktif dan Pasif di Terminal Bus,” Sainstek J. Sains dan Teknol., vol. 11, no. 2, p. 70, 2019, doi: 10.31958/js.v11i2.1576.

M. D. Putra, “Pemeriksaan Kolesterol LDL (LDL-C) Menggunakan Metode Homogen,” Fak. Kedokt. Univ. Udayana, pp. 1–15, 2012.

R. T. Sawiji, E. Oriana, J. La, and N. K. Sukarmini, “Stabilitas Sediaan Gel Aromaterapi Kulit Buah Jeruk Limau ( Citrus amblycarpa ( Hassk .) Ochse ),” Lomb. J. Sciene, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 15–21, 2020.

S. Y. Prabawati, Jumina, Mustofa, and S. J. Santosa, “Pemanfaatan Senyawa Poli-monoaliloksi-kalik [6] Arena Sebagai Antidotum Keracunan Kadmium Pada Mencit,” 2013.

T. Ashar, “Analisis Risiko Asupan Kadmium Melalui Oral Terhadap Terjadinya Proteinuria Pada Masyarakat di Sekitar Tempat Pembuangan Akhir Sampah Namo Bintang,” Universitas Sumatera Utara, 2015.

E. Suhartono, T. Triawanti, and A. S. Leksono, “Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Lipid Peroxidation and Chlorinative Stress of Rat Kidney,” J. Exp. Life Sci., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2015, doi: 10.21776/ub.jels.2015.005.01.01.

A. L. Suryana and Z. Olivia, “Asupan Makan Dan Profil Lipid Pada Pegawai Dengan Status Gizi Obesitas Dan Status Gizi Normal,” Semin. Has. Penelit. dan Pengabdi. Masy. BOPTN, pp. 57–62, 2016.

D. A. Priastiti and N. Puruhita, “Perbedaan Kadar Kolesterol LDL Penderita Dislipedemia Pada Pemberian Tempe Kedelai Hitam dan Tempe Kedelai Kuning,” J. Nutr. Coll., vol. 2, pp. 118–125, 2013.

O. O. Alegbeleye, “How Functional Is Moringa oleifera? A Review of Its Nutritive, Medicinal, and Socioeconomic Potential,” Food Nutr. Bull., vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 149–170, 2018, doi: 10.1177/0379572117749814.

Susanty and F. Bachmid, “Perbandingan Metode Ekstraksi Maserasi dan Refluks terhadap Kadar Fenolik dari Ekstrak Tongkol Jagung (Zea mays L.) (Susanty, Fairus Bachmid),” pp. 87–93, 2016.

T. H. Tunas, H. J. Edy, and J. P. Siampa, “Efek Antibakteri Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.) dan Sediaan Masker Gel ¬Peel-Off Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Lam.),” J. MIPA, vol. 8, no. 3, p. 112, 2019, doi: 10.35799/jmuo.8.3.2019.25778.

B. N. Nangoy, E. De Queljoe, and A. Yudistira, “Uji Aktivitas Antidiabetes Dari Ekstrak Daun Sesewanua (Clerodendron squamatum Vahl.) Terhadap Tikus Putih Jantan Galur Wistar (Rattus norvegicus L.),” Pharmacon, vol. 8, no. 4, p. 774, 2019, doi: 10.35799/pha.8.2019.29353.

A. A. Tinkov et al., “Cadmium and atherosclerosis: A review of toxicological mechanisms and a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies,” Environ. Res., vol. 162, no. December 2017, pp. 240–260, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.008.

F. Andari and A. Rahayuni, “Pengaruh Pemberian Serbuk Biji Labu Kuning (Cucurbita moschata) Terhadap Penurunan Kolesterol Total Tikus Wistar Hiperkolesterolemia,” J. Nutr. Coll., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 988–993, 2014.

S. Saputra and A. Margawati, “Pengaruh Pemberian Yoghurt Sinbiotik Tanpa Lemak Dengan Penambahan Tepung Gembili (Dioscorea Esculenta) Terhadap Kadar Kolesterol Total Tikus Hiperkolesterolemia,” J. Nutr. Coll., vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 104–109, 2015, doi: 10.14710/jnc.v4i2.10052.

L. H. Lacorte et al., “Effects of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extracts on Lipid Profile of Rats: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review,” Asian J. Biol. Life Sci., no. February, pp. 549–558, 2022, doi: 10.5530/ajbls.2021.10.73.

E. Tugiyanti, Z. Zuprizal, and R. Rusman, “Vitamin E (α-Tocopherol) and Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Supplementation on Cholesterol and Triglyceride Blood Profile of Male Native Muscovy,” Proc. Int. Semin., pp. 370–377, 2016, doi: 10.14334/proc.intsem.lpvt-2016-p.370-377.

A. Tjong, Y. A. Assa, and D. S. Purwanto, “Kandungan Antioksidan Pada Daun Kelor (Moringa Oleifera) dan Potensi Sebagai Penurun Kadar Kolesterol Darah,” J. e-Biomedik, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 248–254, 2021, doi: 10.35790/ebm.v9i2.33452.

D. A. Kusmardika, “Potensi Aktivitas Antioksidan Daun Kelor (Moringa Oleifera) Dalam Mencegahan Kanker,” J. Heal. Sci. Physiother., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 46–50, 2020, doi: 10.35893/jhsp.v2i1.33.

Published
2022-09-15
How to Cite
[1]
V. Nabilla, I. Lestari, C. Rahayuningsih, and J. Christyaningsih, “The Effectiveness Of Moringa Leaf Extract (Moringa oleifera) on Cadmium and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Blood as Indicators of Atherosclerosis in Cadmium (Cd) Induced White Rats (Rattus norvegicus)”, Jurnal Teknokes, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 128-136, Sep. 2022.
Section
Medical Laboratory Technology