Sphygmomanometer Sphygmomanometer with Led Bar Display to Improve the Blood Pressure Reading Accuracy

  • Bambang Guruh Irianto Guruh Irianto Department of Medical Electronics Technology, Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya
  • Sumber Sumber Department of Medical Electronics Technology, Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya
  • Elmira Rofida Al Haq Department of Medical Electronics Technology, Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya
  • Mansour Asghari Bonab Islamic Azad university, Bonab, Iran
Keywords: Sphygmomanometer; Led Bar; MPX5050GP; Microcontroller


Instruments in the hospital environment have a role to help and promote more accurate diagnosis and treatment. The general condition of the equipment used and their delivery are very important for a good prognostic. One of them is a device to measure blood pressure called a sphygmomanometer. There are 3 types of sphygmomanometer, namely digital, mercury, and aneroid. Currently, digital sphygmomanometers are known to be easy to use, but their accuracy is low and reduces the ability of nurses to identify blood pressure in humans. Mercury sphygmomanometer has high accuracy, but should not be used because it still uses mercury as a display. This is supported by the Ministry of Health's program to free the world of health from mercury because of the impact of mercury on health and the importance of nurses to train the skills of nurses. The purpose of this study was to reduce the use of mercury which is harmful to humans, in addition to training the nurse's ability to take blood pressure readings on patients. The method used by the researcher is to test the suitability value of the module with the calibrator and to collect data on six respondents to compare the module with the sphygmomanometer that has been traded. The result of the research is the error value when testing the module's suitability value with the DPM (Digital Pressure Monitor) calibrator with a range from 0 to 0.67%. each set point has a different error value. and the lowest error value is among the six set points, namely 0% and the highest error value is 0.67%. Meanwhile, the lowest error value in systole is 0.2% and the highest error value is 2.16%. While the lowest error value in diastole is 0% and the highest error value is 5.55%. Based on the results of the research that has been carried out, the authors conclude that this module is made to replace mercury which is prohibited from being used because it is dangerous for humans and trains nurses' abilities in determining blood pressure readings.


Download data is not yet available.


Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia, Sociedade Brasileira de Hipertensão, and Sociedade Brasileira de Nefrologia, “[VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension].,” Arq. Bras. Cardiol., vol. 95, no. 1 Suppl, pp. 1–51, 2010, [Online]. Available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21085756.

MHRA, “Blood Pressure Measurement Devices,” Med. Heal. Prod. Regul. Agency, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2021, [Online]. Available: http://www.mhra.gov.uk/Publications/Safetyguidance/DeviceBulletins/CON2024245.

Z. S. N. Reis, “Anais do XV Congresso Brasileiro de Informática em Saúde,” XV Congr. Bras. Informática em Saúde - CBIS, p. 1110, 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.sbis.org.br/biblioteca_virtual/cbis/Anais_CBIS_2016_Artigos_Completos.pdf.

N. R. C. Campbell and D. W. McKay, “Accurate blood pressure measurement: Why does it matter?,” Cmaj, vol. 161, no. 3, pp. 277–278, 1999.

S. Tale, S. Joshi, R. S. Ambad, and N. Bankar, “Sphygmomanometers : Technological Advancements and Significance in Diagnostics,” Nat. Volatiles Essent. Oils, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1453–1456, 2021.

F. Nobre, E. B. Coelho, M. E. L. Do Valle Dallora, P. A. De Figueiredo, A. B. F. Ferreira, and M. A. O. F. Da Rosa, “Assessment of sphygmomanometers: A proposal for excellence in blood pressure measurement,” Arq. Bras. Cardiol., vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 2008–2010, 2009, doi: 10.1590/S0066-782X2009000800026.

WHO, WHO medical device technical series. 2020.

A. Sp, “American National Standard for Manual, electronic, or automated sphygmomanometers,” Ansi/Aami Sp10:2002/(R)2008, 2008.

R. VISWANATHAN, “Polio.,” Ind. Med. Gaz., vol. 84, no. 8, pp. 353–359, 1949, doi: 10.1177/2165079915576935.

C. A’Court, R. Stevens, S. Sanders, A. Ward, R. McManus, and C. Heneghan, “Type and accuracy of sphygmomanometers in primary care: A cross-sectional observational study,” Br. J. Gen. Pract., vol. 61, no. 590, pp. 598–603, 2011, doi: 10.3399/bjgp11X593884.

W. H. Organisation, “Risks from mercury for human health and the environment Risks from mercury for human health and the environment Report of an awareness-raising,” Mercury, vol. 3, no. September, pp. 3–11, 2016.

T. Parties et al., “Minamata Convention on Mercury,” pp. 1–30, 2009, [Online]. Available: www.unep.orgwww.unep.orgwww.mercuryconvention.org.

Science Communication Unit, Tackling mercury pollution in the EU and worldwide., no. November. 2017.

H. Mondal and S. Mondal, “Correspondence: Are automated blood pressure apparatus reliable? Automated versus manual measurement of blood pressure,” J. Clin. Diagnostic Res., vol. 12, no. 12, pp. OL01–OL02, 2018, doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2018/38112.12351.

UNEP Chemicals Branch, “The global atmospheric mercury assessment: sources, emissions and transport,” UNEP-Chemicals, Geneva, p. 44, 2008, [Online]. Available: http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&btnG=Search&q=intitle:The+Global+Atmospheric+Mercury+Assessment+:+Sources+,+Emissions+and+Transport#2.

B. Shahbabu, A. Dasgupta, K. Sarkar, and S. K. Sahoo, “Which is more accurate in measuring the blood pressure? A digital or an aneroid sphygmomanometer,” J. Clin. Diagnostic Res., vol. 10, no. 3, pp. LC11–LC14, 2016, doi: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/14351.7458.

D. W. Jones, E. D. Frohlich, C. M. Grim, C. E. Grim, and K. A. Taubert, “Mercury sphygmomanometers should not be abandoned: An advisory statement from the council for high blood pressure research, American heart association,” Hypertension, vol. 37, no. 2 I, pp. 185–186, 2001, doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.37.2.185.

E. A. M. Arcuri, T. L. de Araújo, E. V. Veigaa, S. M. J. V. de Oliveira, J. L. T. Lamas, and J. L. F. Santos, “Korotkoff sounds: Development of the sphygmomanometry research at the Nursing School of the USP,” Rev. da Esc. Enferm., vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 147–153, 2007, doi: 10.1590/s0080-62342007000100020.

P. Bhatt, S. Arora, T. El, and P. Kapoor, “Comparison of Measurement Accuracy of Aneroid , Digital , and Mercury Sphygmomanometer,” J. Nurs. Sci. Pract., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 28–32, 2016.

I. F. Zahra, I. D. G. H. Wisana, P. C. Nugraha, and H. J. Hassaballah, “Design a Monitoring Device for Heart-Attack Early Detection Based on Respiration Rate and Body Temperature Parameters,” Indones. J. Electron. Electromed. Eng. Med. informatics, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 114–120, 2021, doi: 10.35882/ijeeemi.v3i3.5.

IANS, “STUDY CLAIMS THAT 70 PERCENT OF DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORS ARE INACCURATE,” 2017. https://www.firstpost.com/tech/news-analysis/study-claims-that-70-percent-of-digital-blood-pressure-monitors-are-inaccurate-3704513.html (accessed Jun. 17, 2022).

J. Bloomfield, J. Roberts, and A. While, “The effect of computer-assisted learning versus conventional teaching methods on the acquisition and retention of handwashing theory and skills in pre-qualification nursing students: A randomised controlled trial,” Int. J. Nurs. Stud., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 287–294, 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.08.003.

M. G. Myers, “Why automated office blood pressure should now replace the mercury sphygmomanometer,” J. Clin. Hypertens., vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 478–480, 2010, doi: 10.1111/j.1751-7176.2010.00301.x.

I. Peate and K. Wild, “Clinical observations 4/6: assessing blood pressure,” Br. J. Healthc. Assist., vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 382–387, 2012, doi: 10.12968/bjha.2012.6.8.382.

M. Bland and K. Ousey, “Preparing students to competently measure blood pressure in the real-world environment: A comparison between New Zealand and the United Kingdom,” Nurse Educ. Pract., vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 28–35, 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.nepr.2011.04.009.

A. Pegram and J. Bloomfield, “The importance of measuring blood pressure in mental health care,” Ment. Heal. Pract., vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 33–36, 2013, doi: 10.7748/mhp2013.

D. Badran, P. Abreu, and M. T. Restivo, “Blood Pressure Measurement,” Proc. 2019 5th Exp. Int. Conf. exp.at 2019, vol. 22, no. 19, pp. 476–480, 2019, doi: 10.1109/EXPAT.2019.8876538.

C. Mulryan, Acute Illness Management, Illustrate. United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd, 2011.

L. Gorman, “Developing student nurses’ knowledge about blood pressure,” Nurs. Times, vol. 117, no. 4, pp. 43–46, 2021.

“Hypertension in adults: Diagnosis and management,” Pract. Nurse, vol. 49, no. 9, 2019.

T. Foken, “Measurement Technique,” Micrometeorology, pp. 245–298, 2017, doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-25440-6_6.

S. D. Menon and S. Ganapathi, “How to measure blood pressure accurately,” Med. J. Aust., vol. 213, no. 4, pp. 163-165.e1, 2020, doi: 10.5694/mja2.50701.

Y. W. Kusumaningtyas, T. B. Indrato, M. P. A. T.P, and B. Utomo, “Digital Sphygmomanometer Based on Arduino Using TFT LCD Display,” Indones. J. Electron. Electromed. Eng. Med. informatics, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 34–38, 2019, doi: 10.35882/ijeeemi.v1i1.6.

P. Cristina Silva, R. Souza de Faria, A. Gon鏰lves Sallum, L. Vinicius de Alcantara Sousa, V. E. Valenti, and P. Jos�Oliveira Cortez, “Analysis of Mercury Sphygmomanometers in A Hospital School-Analysis of Mercury Sphygmomanometers,” J. Cardiol. Ther., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 697–700, 2018, doi: 10.17554/j.issn.2309-6861.2018.05.138.

J. S. Pagsibigan, A. O. Balabagno, J. A. Tuazon, and L. S. Evangelista, “Blood Pressure Measurement Training Program and Adherence of Public Health Nurses to BP Measurement Guidelines,” Acta Med. Philipp., vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 351–359, 2017, doi: 10.47895/amp.v51i4.523.

How to Cite
B. G. I. Irianto, S. Sumber, E. R. Al Haq, and M. Asghari, “Sphygmomanometer Sphygmomanometer with Led Bar Display to Improve the Blood Pressure Reading Accuracy”, Jurnal Teknokes, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 154-160, Sep. 2022.
Biomedical Engineering